Traveling Luck for Thailand. Thailand, Asia

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Thailand is located in Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand, southeast of Burma.

Land in Thailand is central plain; Khorat Plateau in the east; mountains elsewhere.

Thai land covers an area of 514000 square kilometers which is slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming

Thailand has borders with Cambodia for 803km, Laos for 1754km, Myanmar for 1800km and Malaysia for 506km.

Thai flag Thai national flag (Flag of Thailand)

As for the Thai climate; tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid.

Thai (singular and plural) speak Thai, English (secondary language of the elite), ethnic and regional dialects.

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Places of note in Thailand

Thai Map Thai map

Regions of Thailand

A unified Thai kingdom was established in the mid-14th century. Known as Siam until 1939, Thailand is the only Southeast Asian country never to have been taken over by a European power. A bloodless revolution in 1932 led to a constitutional monarchy. In alliance with Japan during World War II, Thailand became a US ally following the conflict. Thailand is currently facing armed violence in its three Muslim-majority southernmost provinces.

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Country Profile for Thailand

With a well-developed infrastructure, a free-enterprise economy, and pro-investment policies, Thailand appears to have fully recovered from the 1997-98 Asian Financial Crisis. The country was one of East Asia's best performers in 2002-04. Boosted by increased consumption and strong export growth, the Thai economy grew 6.9% in 2003 and 6.1% in 2004 despite a sluggish global economy. Bangkok has pursued preferential trade agreements with a variety of partners in an effort to boost exports and to maintain high growth. In 2004, Thailand and the US began negotiations on a Free Trade Agreement. In late December 2004, a major tsunami took 8,500 lives in Thailand and caused massive destruction of property in the southern provinces of Krabi, Phangnga, and Phuket. Growth slowed to 4.4% in 2005. The downturn can be attributed to high oil prices, weaker demand from Western markets, severe drought in rural regions, tsunami-related declines in tourism, and lower consumer confidence. Moreover, the THAKSIN administration's expansionist economic policies, including plans for multi-billion-dollar mega-projects in infrastructure and social development, has raised concerns about fiscal discipline and the health of financial institutions. On the positive side, the Thai economy performed well beginning in the third quarter of 2005. Export-oriented manufacturing - in particular automobile production - and farm output are driving these gains. In 2006, the economy should benefit from an influx of investment and a revived tourism sector; however, a possible avian flu epidemic could significantly harm economic prospects throughout the region.

Thai natural resources include tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite, arable land

controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore

Thai religion is Buddhist 94.6%, Muslim 4.6%, Christian 0.7%, other 0.1% (2000 census).

Natural hazards in Thailand include land subsidence in Bangkok area resulting from the depletion of the water table; droughts.

Travel Advice for Thailand

Thailand

This advice has been reviewed and reissued with amendments to the Summary, Terrorism, and Health section.  The overall level of the advice has not changed.

SUMMARY

  • On 31 December 2006, eight bombs exploded in various locations in Bangkok, killing three people and injuring at least 36 others including six foreigners.  As a result, the Thai authorities have strengthened security in Bangkok.  The possibility of further attacks cannot be ruled out.  You should exercise caution when travelling within Bangkok and where possible avoid crowded public places.

  • We advise against all but essential travel to, or through, the far southern provinces of Pattani, Yala, Narathiwat and Songkhla, where there is continuing violence due to insurgency and civil unrest.  Since January 2004, there have been regular attacks including bombings and shootings.  The Thai Government has declared a serious state of emergency in the provinces of Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat.

  • There is a high threat from terrorism throughout Thailand.  Attacks could be indiscriminate and against places frequented by foreigners.

  • On 19 September 2006, there was a coup against the Thai civilian government and martial law was imposed throughout the country.  An interim Prime Minister was appointed on 1 October 2006 and on 26 January 2007 martial law was lifted in 41 (of the total of 76) provinces, including Bangkok.  There remains a risk of further political instability in Thailand.  You are advised to avoid any demonstrations and large crowds.

  • Penalties for possession, distribution or manufacture of drugs are severe and can include the death penalty.

  • Outbreaks of Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) in Thailand have resulted in a small number of human fatalities.  As a precaution, you should avoid live animal markets, poultry farms and other places where you may come into close contact with domestic, caged or wild birds; and ensure poultry and egg dishes are thoroughly cooked.  For further information see Health section below and also read the FCO’s Avian and Pandemic Influenza Factsheet.

  • Around 750,000 British tourists visit Thailand every year.  The main types of incident for which British nationals require consular assistance in Thailand are arrests (mostly drug related); hospital cases (especially road accidents); and deaths, mostly from natural causes and road accidents.  The majority of consular cases occur in Bangkok, Pattaya and Koh Samui.

  • We strongly recommend that you obtain comprehensive travel and medical insurance before travelling.  You should check any exclusions, and that your policy covers you for the activities you want to undertake.  Please see:  Travel Insurance.


SAFETY AND SECURITY

Terrorism/Security

There is a high threat from terrorism throughout Thailand.  Attacks can be indiscriminate and could be against places frequented by foreigners. On 31 December 2006, eight bombs exploded in various locations in Bangkok, killing three people and injuring at least 36 others including six foreigners. On 30 January 2007, two explosions occurred near the Rama Gardens Hotel in Bangkok.  No casualties were reported.

As a result of these attacks, the Thai authorities have strengthened security in Bangkok.  However, the possibility of further attacks cannot be ruled out.  You should exercise caution when travelling within Bangkok and where possible avoid crowded public places.

We advise against all but essential travel to, or through, the far southern provinces of Pattani, Yala, Narathiwat and Songkhla, where there is continuing violence due to insurgency and civil unrest.
If you do decide to travel to, or through, the far southern provinces of Thailand, you should ensure that you are comfortable with, and regularly review your own and your family's security arrangements.
There was a series of bombings in these far southern provinces in 2006.  On 9 November 2006, eight near simultaneous bomb attacks took place on car showrooms and motorcycle dealerships in Yala town in southern Thailand injuring 13 people.  On 16 September 2006, four bombs exploded in the town of Hat Yai killing four and injuring approximately 68.  Two British nationals were amongst a number of foreign nationals injured in this latter attack.  In August 2006, there were a number of explosions.
Since January 2004, there have been almost daily attacks in the far south, including arson, over 200 bombings and many more shootings, stabbings and some beheadings.  Targets have included civilians and members of the security forces, government offices, tourist hotels and bars, shops, marketplaces, supermarkets, schools, transport infrastructure and trains.  Over 1,900 people have been killed and several thousand more injured.  No British nationals have been killed in these attacks, but some other foreign nationals have been killed and injured.
On 19 July 2005, the Thai Government announced a serious state of emergency in the provinces of Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat, under a new piece of emergency legislation, which gives security authorities significant extra powers, including the power to detain suspects without charge, censor the media, conduct searches and seize documents.  This state of emergency has since been extended.  Martial law also remains in place in these three provinces.  On 3 November 2005, the Thai Government also announced martial law in the Chana and Thepha districts of Songkhla province.  Special security measures have remained in place at all airports since the bombing of Hat Yai International Airport in April 2005.
Elsewhere in the region, Westerners were killed and injured following terrorist attacks in Indonesia; in Bali (October 2002 and October 2005) and Jakarta (August 2003 and September 2004).  The extremist group Jamaah Islamiyah is thought to be responsible for these bombings.  The Thai authorities have arrested a number of terrorist suspects, most notably a senior leader of Jamaah Islamiyah.
Please read Security and General Tips in the 'While you are there' section and Risk of Terrorism when Travelling Overseas on the FCO website for further information and advice.
Political Situation
Thailand Country Profile
On 19 September 2006, there was a coup against the Thai civilian government and martial law was imposed throughout the country. On 26 January 2007, martial law was lifted in 41 provinces, including Bangkok.  It remains however in 35 (of the total of 76) provinces.  An interim Prime Minister was appointed on 1 October 2006.  There remains a risk of further political instability in Thailand. You are advised to avoid any demonstrations and large crowds.
Crime
Eight British nationals have been murdered in Thailand since January 2005.
Unlicensed taxis and minibuses often overcharge tourists for airport transfers.  You should ensure that the driver has a working meter or agree a charge for the ride before taking it.  There is a cheap, reliable airport bus service to the centre of Bangkok.
Watch out for crimes of opportunity.  Theft of passports and credit cards is a problem.  Passport fraud is high and penalties are severe.
There have been a number of incidents where tourists have had their drinks drugged (in both tourist areas and red light districts) by prostitutes/transsexuals ("lady boys").  You should be careful about taking drinks from strangers and be wary at parties, particularly the Full Moon party on Phangan Island.  A number of British nationals have suffered severe psychiatric problems as a result of drug use, in a small number of cases resulting in suicide.
We continue to receive reports of sexual offences committed against foreign women and men.  In January 2006, three British women were raped in separate incidents in Thailand, including one who was murdered.  Female travellers in particular should maintain a high state of personal awareness during their time in Thailand.
You should beware of being approached by strangers who offer to take you to gem shops.  Once in the shop you may be asked to purchase gems on your credit card.  The gems are sent to your home address in the UK.  However, they are rarely worth the value you pay for them.  It is very difficult to get your money returned as the shops shut down quickly and re-open somewhere else.

You should report any incidents of crime to the Thai police before leaving the country.
Local Travel
As noted above, there has been a resurgence of violence in the far southern provinces of Pattani, Yala, Narathiwat and Songkhla.  We recommend against all but essential travel to these four provinces.
Thai to Burma Border
The main towns along the order with Burma are generally safe.  But if you plan to travel to remoter areas you should exercise particular care.  There is sporadic conflict on the Burmese side between Government soldiers and armed opposition troops, some of whom cross the border into Thailand to seek refuge.  There are also occasional clashes between the Thai security forces and armed criminal groups, such as drug traffickers who operate in these areas.  Outside the main towns, police and military checkpoints are actively manned and travellers may be asked to produce identification.  If you wish to visit border areas outside the main towns you should consult the local authorities for advice on the current situation at:  http://www.tourismthailand.org/.
Travelling to Cambodia
There are two legal land crossing points into and out of Cambodia for foreigners:  Srakaew Province to Poipet, open daily 07:30 hours to 20:00 hours; and KlongYai at Had Lek, Trad Province to Koh Kong, open daily 07:00 hours to 20:00 hours.  British nationals need a visa for Cambodia (see travel advice to enter Cambodia).
Crossing to Laos
Visas are available at the principal entry points, the Thai to Lao Friendship Bridge, Luang Prabang and Vientiane Airports, on payment of 30 American Dollars cash and provision of a passport photograph.  If you intend to enter at any other entry point then you will need to get a visa in advance.  You should also be aware that not all entry points are open to foreigners (see travel advice for Laos).
Road Safety
Riding a motorcycle or scooter in Thailand can be dangerous.  On average 38 people a day die in motorcycle accidents in Thailand.  You should take the same safety precautions as in the UK.  The Thai law that safety helmets must be worn is widely ignored: a contributing factor in many tourist deaths each year.
The motorcycles or scooters available for hire in beach resorts are usually mopeds of less than 50cc.  They are not registered as a vehicle and cannot, consequently, be used legally on a public road.  Motorcycles or scooters of under 50cc are not covered by insurance and if there is an accident, the hirer is responsible for any damage or loss of the vehicle or injury to a third party.  When the motorcycle is over 50cc you should check your travel insurance policy carefully to ensure that you are covered.  Before you hire a vehicle check the small print of the lease agreement carefully.
You should not hand over your passport as a guarantee against returning a motor scooter or cycle.  They can be held to ransom by unscrupulous owners against claimed damage to the motor scooter or cycle.
Air Safety
The European Commission has published a list of air carriers that are subject to an operating ban or restrictions within the European Union.  The list, which includes Phuket Airlines, can be found at the following link:  http://europa.eu.int/comm/transport/air/safety/flywell_en.htm.  Also, the Thai Ministry of Transport grounded Phuket Air's domestically operated YS11 aircraft because of safety concerns on 13 September 2005.  If booked on Phuket Airlines, you should check with your ticket provider.
Sea Safety
There have been a number of instances of passenger boats sinking, apparently due to overloading.  In January 2005, four British nationals were among 18 people who died near Koh Samui when a speedboat bringing passengers back from the full moon party on Koh Pha Ngan sank.  During the full moon party speedboats to and from Koh Pha Ngan are often severely overloaded.  You should exercise care at all times when travelling by passenger ferry or speedboat and avoid travel on vessels that are clearly overloaded or in poor condition.  You should also ensure that life jackets are available.
For further information please see: River and Sea Safety
You should take particular care when swimming off coastal areas, especially during monsoon season (November-March in Koh Samui and the south-east of the Thai peninsula and May - October in the remainder of Thailand).  Strong riptides have resulted in a number of drownings in several areas including Phuket, Koh Chang, Hua Hin/Cha-am and Pattaya and the Samui archipelago.  Jellyfish can swim close to the shore, particularly during the rainy season from May to October.  Their sting can be fatal.  If in doubt take local advice e.g. from hotel management, dive centres.
Water sports and scuba diving: the standards maintained by diving schools and rescue services are not always as high and comprehensive as they might be in the UK.  Check a dive operator's credentials carefully before using them and ensure that your insurance covers you for all of the activities that you undertake. If you are an experienced diver you should purchase dive specific insurance and check that your qualifications and experience fall within the cover provided.  You should contact your issuing authority (ie. PADI or BSAC) if you are in any doubt.  If you have had no previous diving experience you should ask your dive operator to explain what cover they offer before signing up for a course; you should also be satisfied that sufficient safety equipment is available on the boat.
River Safety
You should take care when swimming/diving/kayaking or white water rafting in rivers or close to waterfalls, particularly in the rainy season from May to October.  Currents are extremely strong.  In three separate incidents in August 2006, three foreign tourists (including two British nationals) died when their respective white water rafts capsized.


LOCAL LAWS AND CUSTOMS

You should not become involved with drugs of any kind.  Possession of even very small quantities can lead to imprisonment.  Possession of Marijuana can lead to a prison sentence of up to 15 years plus a fine of Baht 150,000 (£2,200).  Amphetamines and Ecstasy are regarded as a class A drugs and possession or trafficking of them carries the same penalties as, for example, heroin.  Possession of 20 grams, or over, of a class A drug at a point of exit from Thailand results in a charge of illegal possession, possession for distribution and attempt to smuggle and export, i.e.  trafficking.  A guilty verdict usually attracts the death sentence.

It is illegal to import more than 200 cigarettes per person into Thailand.  The importation of more than 200 cigarettes will be met with a heavy fine and the confiscation of the cigarettes.

By law, tourists are expected to carry their original passports at all times in Thailand.  There have been incidents where tourists have been arrested because they were unable to produce their passport.

It is a criminal offence to make critical or defamatory comments about the King or other members of the Royal family, punishable by a sentence of 3 to 15 years.
Thai family law is very different from UK law and particular caution is needed when, for example, child custody becomes an issue.  Please see Child Abudction


ENTRY REQUIREMENTS

Visas
British passport holders are given entry for 30 days, without a visa, on arrival.  Visa free entry is limited to a maximum of 90 days in any 180-day period.  Once the 90-day limit has been reached, further visa-free entry will not be granted.  However, time spent in Thailand on a tourist visa issued by a Thai Embassy or Consulate will not count towards the 90-day limit.  Overstaying without the proper authority is a serious matter and you can be held in detention until a fine is paid.  The only legal way of obtaining a new visa, entry permit or extension of stay is from a Royal Thai Embassy or Consulate, an Immigration Officer at a point of entry into Thailand or one of the Immigration Offices around the country.
Visas issued by visa shops, travel agents or by any other means are likely to be illegal and lead to criminal proceedings, which may result in a large fine or imprisonment.  You would also be prohibited from entering Thailand again.  Entry to Thailand is normally refused if you have a passport with less than six months validity.
Single parents or other adults travelling alone with children should be aware that some countries require documentary evidence of parental responsibility before allowing lone parents to enter the country, or, in some cases, before permitting the children to leave the country.  Thai authorities do not require such evidence, but if you have any concerns please check with Thai representation in the UK.
For further information on visas and entry requirements please check with Thai representation in the UK.
Airport Tax
With effect from 1 February 2007, airport tax of 700 Baht per person will be incorporated into the cost of tickets. Airport tax for domestic flights is also included in tickets.  The exception is Koh Samui where there is a domestic departure tax of 400 Baht per person.
Employment in Thailand
You need a work permit, which is difficult to obtain and time consuming, for legal employment in Thailand.  If you enter Thailand on a tourist visa you are not allowed to take up employment.  Failure to observe this rule can lead to arrest and deportation.  Advertisements, for example, for sales staff or currency trading advisers offering free flights and five star accommodation in Bangkok should be treated with the utmost scepticism.  Do not believe employers' claims to be able to circumvent the Thai Immigration Regulations.  If in doubt consult Thai representation in the UK.


HEALTH

We strongly recommend that you obtain comprehensive travel and medical insurance before travelling.  You should check any exclusions, and that your policy covers you for the activities you want to undertake.  Please see:  Travel Insurance.
There are excellent international hospitals in Bangkok but they can be expensive.  Ordinary hospitals and clinics in Thailand are not always up to UK standards.  This applies particularly to the coastal islands and many mainland districts outside of Bangkok, where hospitals and clinics are not equipped to deal with major trauma.  Many hospitals require the authorisation of next of kin to perform operations on patients and guarantee of payment for the hospital bills from immediate next of kin.  You should complete next of kin details in the back of your passports.
Since January 2005 the number of reported cases of Dengue Fever in Thailand, and in particular Southern Thailand has increased sharply.  There have been several thousand cases and some deaths.  On 23 July 2006, the Thai Ministry of Public Health declared four provinces in the upper Central and lower North regions of Thailand as "red zones" for Dengue Fever.  These include Kamphaeng Phet, Nakhon Sawan, Phichit and Uthai Thani provinces.  You should take particular care if travelling to these provinces.  The rainy season, which is the peak season for dengue fever, is May to October.  You should take adequate precautions against being bitten by mosquitoes.  Detailed information about dengue fever is available on the WHO website:  http://www.who.int/topics/dengue/en/ and the National Travel Health Network and Centre website:  http://www.nathnac.org/pro/factsheets/dengue.htm
Thailand has a significant level of HIV infection and AIDS.  Heterosexual transmission accounts for most HIV infections and HIV is common among prostitutes of both sexes.
There have been reports in January 2007 of four foreign tourists (not including any British nationals) contracting Legionnaires Disease following a stay at a hotel in Phuket.  The Thai authorities are investigating the situation.  For more information please see the European Union's health surveillance report at: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ew/2007/070111.asp#2
You should seek medical advice before travelling and ensure that all appropriate vaccinations are up to date.  For further information on health, check the Department of Health’s website at:  www.dh.gov.uk.
Avian Influenza
There have been outbreaks of Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) in domestic poultry and wild birds in Thailand.  This has led to a small number of human fatalities believed to have arisen through close contact with infected poultry.  On 26 September 2006, the Thai authorities announced that the most recent fatality occurred in Nong Bua Lumphu Province (north eastern Thailand) on 10 August 2006.  Since the end of 2003, a number of human deaths have also occurred in Azerbaijan, Egypt, Vietnam, Indonesia, Cambodia, Turkey, Iraq and China.
The risk to humans from Avian Influenza is believed to be very low.  However, as a precaution, you should avoid visiting live animal markets, poultry farms and other places where you may come into close contact with domestic, caged or wild birds; and ensure poultry and egg dishes are thoroughly cooked.
The World Health Organisation (WHO) has warned of the possibility that the Avian Influenza outbreaks could lead at some point to a human flu pandemic, if a virus mutates to a form which is easily transmissible between people.
British nationals living longer term in an Avian-Influenza affected region should take personal responsibility for their own safety in the event of a future pandemic, including considering their access to adequate healthcare and ensuring travel documents are up to date.
You should read this advice in conjunction with the Avian and Pandemic Influenza Factsheet.
NATURAL DISASTERS
Tidal waves/Earthquake - 26 December 2004:
Like a number of other countries in the region, Thailand was hit by a series of tidal waves (tsunamis) on 26 December 2004, following a major earthquake in the Indian Ocean.  Almost the whole length of Thailand's west coast was affected, together with the many islands off the coast in the Andaman Sea.
Services and facilities in most areas of Thailand affected by the tsunami, including Phuket, are now operating normally.  But on the coast of Khao Lak and on Phi Phi some services may still not be back to pre-tsunami standards.  You should check with your tour operator before travelling to affected areas.

If you are a relative or friend of a British citizen killed, injured or missing as a result of the tsunami in December 2004, and are planning to visit Thailand, you should contact the British Embassy in Bangkok (see below).
Monsoon Season
September and October is the height of the monsoon season in much of Thailand (November to March in Koh Samui and the south east of the Thai peninsula).  Widespread flooding in the north, north eastern and central regions is routine, often resulting in flash floods and mud slides.  You are advised to check local weather reports or with your tour operator before travelling to affected areas.  If considering jungle trekking ensure that you use reliable licensed tour guides and check local weather reports before travelling.


GENERAL

If things go wrong when overseas, please see:  What We Can Do To Help.
Elephant riding can be dangerous.  It has been the cause of several serious accidents and at least one death of a British citizen.
If you are a British national and plan to stay for an extended period in Thailand you are strongly advised to register with the British Embassy in Bangkok upon arrival.
Money
It is not possible to change Scottish or Northern Irish bank notes anywhere in Thailand.